Category: General Knowledge

The Crusades

The First Crusade was essentially a popular movement estimated to have involved a mass movement of close to a million people in eastern migration. The largely French crowd that heard the preaching of Urban II responded enthusiastically. Subsequent preaching for a Crusade by Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless snowballed enthusiasm into a growing crowd of illiterate peasants marching through Germany, Hungary and the Balkans in 1096, much to the alarm of the Emperor of Constantinople who had not foreseen that the Western response to his appeal would be a popular unorganized mass movement of zealous but misguided peasants!

The crowd was hurriedly allowed to cross the straits into Asia Minor where it was massacred by the Turks with the remnant taken as prisoners or sold into slavery. The second wave of Crusaders led by nobles from France, Belgium and Norman Italy consisting of properly organized professional troops landed in Constantinople in the Spring of 1097. Nicaea was taken after a siege and Antioch by the spring of 1098. Jerusalem was captured in the spring of 1099. After the success of the Crusaders, the feudal lords at the head of the Crusading armies settled down to carving out fiefdoms for themselves in captured areas. Many of the European styled castles in the Near East date from the time of the First Crusade. The province of Jerusalem became the fiefdom of Godfrey of Bouillon(“Kingdom of Jerusalem”). The Order of the Knights Templar and Hospitallers was formed to provide protection for Christian pilgrims and fight against the Muslims.

The Second Crusade arose from the need to deal with the threat to Jerusalem from the northwestern flank of the Kingdom after the fall of the Kingdom of Edessa to the Muslims. Bernard of Clairvaux (a famous mystic) by his preachings and exhortations roused the King of France and the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire to action. The Second Crusade, however, was a failure for Jerusalem was recaptured by the Muslims under Saladin in 1187.

The Third Crusade(1189-92) is known as the King’s Crusade and came under the leadership of Phillip Augustus of France, Richard of England and Emperor Frederick (“Barbarossa”). The Third Crusade met with an early crisis when “Barbarossa” was accidentally drowned on the way to Palestine, and Phillip Augustus had a disagreement with Richard and returned home. Richard had to proceed with the Crusade alone. He was, however, unable to dislodge the Muslims from Jerusalem but he scored the partial success of an agreement with Saladin which granted Christian pilgrims access to Jerusalem.

The Fourth Crusade was at the instance of Innocent III and other French priests. It was, therefore, essentially a French crusade under papal direction. Boats were needed by the Crusaders for transportation and the Doge of Venice offered to supply them at a price. The Crusaders, however, could not afford the sum and in payment, they agreed to help the Venetians recapture Zara, a town that had once been under Venetian control. After the recapture of Zara, the Crusaders made a sudden change in objective. Rather than sail to Alexandria in Egypt, they sailed to Constantinople and laid siege on the city. Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was captured in 1204. Although Innocent had not been involved in the decision to divert the Crusade to Constantinople, he gladly accepted the results for, at last, the Greek Church in the Eastern Empire came under Papal authority, bringing the power of the Pope to a new zenith in Europe. Besides, the strategic military significance of the new possession was obvious. Constantinople could serve as a convenient base for a Fifth Crusade against the Muslims.

Innocent III also sponsored a Crusade under the leadership of Simon de Montfort against the Albigenses (Cathari)of Southern France in 1208, and a savage war which virtually exterminated the “heretical” sect was fought. The Fifth and Sixth Crusades were only partially successful. Frederick leader of the Sixth Crusade successfully negotiated an agreement with the Muslims allowing the Christians control over Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Nazareth.But subsequent Crusades failed to keep Jerusalem under Christian control and Jerusalem fell under the control of the Saracens who succeeded the Seljuk Turks to power in Palestine.

A sad event occurred in 1212; the Children’s Crusade. Two boys, barely in their teens, Stephen and Nicholas led an “Army” of “pious” children across southern Europe to Italy in a bid to sail to the Holy Land but were captured and sold by unscrupulous merchants into slavery. The Children had believed that their innocence would guarantee their success where their “sinful” parents had failed.


Everyone may need some help when fishing whether it’s as a sport or just a hobby. The device for such a purpose is known as a fish finder and is easily available in the market. They work by showing sound reflections thereby making it easy to spot the location of many fish at once. They come in various designs and prices, suitable for different people since everyone has different preferences. Some examples and choose one of the best fish finder for the money

Lowrance hook 3X

This fish finder has the basic features that can aid in locating a school of fish and is one of the most affordable. Going for less than $100 and with features like a sound broadband, good resolution with noise rejection, temperature sensor and a frequency range of up to 200Hz, this gadget is great for non-commercial fishers who have a tight budget. Although sometimes it may show the wrong depth and temperature readings, it can also be very helpful when placed on a trolling motor.

Humminbird Helix-10 DI

This is a bit on the higher price range going for over $600 but it’s worth every penny. It has advanced features such as showing images of items under water, temperature and water depth levels as well as any turbulence. With a frequency range that can go up to 800Hz, this fish finding gadgets will give you very accurate information. It also has an LED screen display that aids in showing clear images and readings, built in GPS to give precise location and a metal mounting sturdy. The only downside of this product is the difficulty of the control system but this can get easier once you get used to it. Humminbird Helix-10 DI is a great buy.

Raymarine dragonfly 5 pro

As one of the fish finders with most advanced technologies, this gadget is surprisingly affordable. It has features such as a very high quality display system and an anti-fog system that makes it suitable for any type of weather. Other features include a technology that can show items under the boat, a Wi-Fi system that makes it easy to synchronize the product with its mobile application, a GPS and navigation system that makes it easier to locate items and a mounting feature for easy display. In addition to all this, it produces very clear images and can allow the connection of multiple devices at the same time. However, like all the others it has a downside, which is its inability to show distance and speed. Compared to all the other great features, this downside doesn’t reduce the quality of this fish finder.

Deeper smart portable fish finder

The ability to float on the water surface makes this suitable for any location. Its wireless feature makes it possible to read information under water while floating on the surface. It can show the depth, temperature, location and the vegetation. Its Bluetooth connection can go up to 130 feet and the app that comes with it is easy to understand and use. Even though it is wireless, it doesn’t need a Bluetooth connection to work. The ability to function on icy grounds makes it perfect for ice fishing as well as open lake fishing. Although other objects may hinder Bluetooth connectivity, it’s still an amazing product.